Engineering Geology for Underground Rocks - S. Peng, J. Zhang (Springer, 2007) BBS


    Engineering Geology is devoted to the investigation, study and solution of the engineering and environmental problems which may arise as the result of the interaction between geology and the works and activities of man as well as to the prediction and the development of measures for prevention or remediation of geological hazards (The International Association of Engineering Geology (IAEG) Statutes, 1992). Engineering Geology for Underground Rocks is mainly focused on underground works and activities related to engineering geology such as underground mining, oil and gas drilling exploration and production, and underground excavations etc. People have known about fossil energy for thousand years. In the Bronze Age, people in Wales began to use coal. Coal is mentioned in the Bible and in the writings of the ancient Greeks. Three thousand years ago, the Chinese began mining and burning coal instead of wood. Coal burned much hotter, and this allowed people to melt soft metals such as copper they mined to make bronze drill bits for oil and gas drilling. In ancient inland China, where salt was scarce and consequently expensive, briny wells were deliberately developed by muscle power and bamboo rig. As long ago as 900 B.C., ancient Chinese found oil and gas in the saltwater wells they drilled.

     The oil and gas were sent through bamboo pipes for heating and cooking. More than 1,500 years ago, the Chinese drilled for oil to depths of over 900 m using bronze and bamboo tubes. In 1859 the word's first modern oil well was drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania. Petroleum industry was founded then, and engineering geology started to serve to the oil and gas industry. was founded then, and engineering geology started to serve to the oil and gas industry. Nowadays, due to rocketing energy and mineral requirements, mining and oil and gas development must continue in ever more difficult and complex geological settings, challenging traditional technology and often bringing more geological problems, even disasters. Mining and oil and gas development in these difficult settings require much more innovative theoretical research, specific techniques, and practical technology in both engineering and geology. For example, underground mining has excavated as deep as 3,000 m; borehole drilling has reached to 12,000 m below the Earth; the deepest offshore drilling exceeds 4,000 m below the water sur-face in the Gulf of Mexico. One of the authors had participated pore pressure, wellbore and casing stability analyses in the world deepest oil well (34,070 feet or 10,384 m in true vertical depth from the sea level) in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. 
    As the depth of underground engineering increases, in-situ stress, pore pressure, and temperature increase, causing various engineering and geological problems, such as excavation and wellbore instability, water inrush and influx, rock and coal burst, mining-induced seismicity, gas blowout and explosion, etc. This book attempts to solve some problems mentioned above. The aims of this book are to: x introduce basic principles of engineering geology in underground mining and oil and gas development, x discuss methods to determine in-situ stress and pore pressure using geophysical means. x focus on applications of rock mechanics and poromechanics in excavation and wellbore instability, and x emphasize coupled rock stress/deformation, pore pressure, and fluid flow in porous rocks and fractured porous formations. The authors would like to thank the following organizations for their supports: The State Key Laboratory of Coal Resource and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology Knowledge Systems, Inc., U.S.A. CIRES, the University of Colorado at Boulder, U.S.A. This book was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (grant No. 50221402, 50490271, and 50025413), the China National Program on Key Basic Research Project (grant No. 2002CB211707 and 2005CB221500), the key project of the Ministry of Education (No. 306002) and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of MOEˈPRC (IRT0408). China Coal Research Institute and some coal mining bureaus in China, such as Datong, Daliuta, Datun, Huainan, Huaibei, Handan, Fengfeng, Feicheng, Jiaozhuo, Kailuan, Lianshao, Shuangyashan, Yanzhou, Xingtai, Zaozhuang, Zibo, etc. gave the authors access to their database, which is gratefully acknowledged.

    Authors appreciate the help from Hal H. Zhang and Justin W. Lee. The authors would also like to thank the supports and encouragement to this book from the following individuals: Academicians of Chinese Academy of Engineering: Profs. Dexin Han, Weitang Fan, Minggao Qian, Heping Xie, Shining Zhou, Jishan He, Desheng Gu, Sijing Wang. Academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences: Profs. Lianjun Ye and Yinfo Chang. Prof. J. -C. Roegiers in Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma. Prof. H. A. Spetzler at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The authors also thank the following professors in the State Key Laboratory of Coal Resource and Safe Mining at China University of Mining and Technology for providing related materials: Pengfei Zhang, Daiyong Cao, Zhaoping Meng, Guowei Zhu, Lianying Sun, Yangbing Li. Some graduate students of the first author also provided help, which is grateful. The authors would like to memorize Prof. Tianquan Liu, Academicians of Chinese Academy of Engineering.  

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